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Canadian Study of Health and Aging
Average Follow-up Time Detail
Initial cohort assessment occurred in 1991-1992 (CSHA-1) and follow-up occurred in 1996-1997 (CSHA-2).
Information about risk factors, including hypertension, was obtained via self-administered questionnaire at baseline.
The CSHA is based on a representative, nationwide sample of Canadians.
Entry criteria required all participants to be 65+ in 1989-1990.
Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (Teng 1987)
National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)
"All participants were screened for dementia by using the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) Examination.
Those who screened positive (a 3MS Examination score of below 78/100) and a random sample of those who screened negative (a score of 78 or above) were invited to participate in an extensive clinical evaluation, which followed a three stage protocol. A nurse first readministered the 3MS Examination and collected information on the participant’s medical and family history. Next, a physician conducted a standardized physical and neurologic examination. Finally, for those participants deemed testable (a 3MS Examination score of50 or above), a psychometrist administered a series of neuropsychological tests
, which were interpreted later by a neuropsychologist. Independent preliminary diagnoses were made by the physician and neuropsychologist, which was followed by a case conference in which a consensus diagnosis was reached according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, criteria for dementia
; the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA) criteria for Alzheimer’s disease
; and other specific criteria for cognitive impairment
and vascular dementia
. Diagnoses comprised the following categories: no cognitive impairment; cognitive impairment, no dementia; probable and possible Alzheimer’s disease; vascular dementia; other specific dementia; and unclassifiable dementia."
Covariates & Analysis Detail
"This analysis included only those participants living in the community as of CSHA-1. A case-control analysis was conducted, with incident cases and controls selected at CSHA-2. To be included, participants' initial screening results had to be negative or, at CSHA-1, participants had to be clinically diagnosed without 1) cognitive impairment, no dementia, or 2) dementia. Cases were diagnosed with probable or possible AD at CSHA-2. Comparisons were made with controls who, at CSHA-2, remained without cognitive impairment, no dementia or dementia according to the clinical evaluation or screening test at follow-up"
All participants who met these criteria were included in the analyses.