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AlzRisk Paper Detail

Reference: Maxwell, 2005
Cohort: Canadian Study of Health and Aging
Risk Factor: Nutritional Antioxidants

Average Follow-up Time Detail
We estimated the total person-years of follow-up by multiplying the reported average follow-up time by the number of persons.

Exposure Detail
Assessed by in-person interview at baseline. Joint vitamin C and E use was defined as taking individual vitamin C and E supplements, vitamin C and multivitamins, vitamin E and multivitamins, or mulitvitamins alone. The reference category consisted of those taking no supplemental vitamin C or E and no multivitamins.

Important note: This table includes results for only 2 categories of vitamin use, to the exclusion of participants in other categories (e.g., only vitamin E, only vitamin E). Therefore, the percents shown do not add up to 100%.

Ethnicity Detail
Participants were residents from five geographic regions in Canada (British Columbia, the Prairie Provinces, Ontario, Quebec and the Atlantic Provinces).

Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Screening Method:
3MSEModified Mini-Mental State Examination (Teng 1987)

AD Diagnosis:
DSM IIIR Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III-Revised
NINCDS ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)

Total Dementia Definition: Dementia via DSM III-R.

Participants first underwent screening using the 3MS. Those who scored less than 78 and those unable to be screened underwent a clinical examination including medical history, informant interview, physical examination, neuropsychological testing, and laboratory tests.

Covariates & Analysis Detail
Analysis Type:
Logistic regression

AD Covariates:

TD Covariates: