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AlzRisk Paper Detail

Reference: Luchsinger, 2007
Cohort: Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project
Risk Factor: B Vitamins

Exposure Detail
B vitamin intake was measured using the baseline questionnaire.
High-dose supplements of folate were considered those containing ≥400μg (the Recommended Dietary Allowances [RDA], as recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine).

"We assessed daily dietary intake with a 61-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (Channing Laboratory, Cambridge, MA). Information on daily dietary, supplement, and total intake of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 was estimated from the semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire data."

Ethnicity Detail
Participants were a random sample of Medicare recipients 65 years or older residing in northern Manhattan (Washington Heights, Hamilton Heights, or Inwood).

Screening and Diagnosis Detail
AD Diagnosis:
DSM IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV
NINCDS ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)

Total dementia definition: Dementia via DSM-IV.

Dementia diagnosis was made by a multidisciplinary consensus panel using both baseline and follow-up information. Dementia diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria and required evidence of cognitive deficits on neuropsychological test results and evidence of impairment in social or occupational function (clinical dementia rating of ≥1). The diagnosis of AD was based on criteria of the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and the Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Associations.

Covariates & Analysis Detail
Analysis Type:
Cox proportional hazards regression

Follow-up time was the time scale in the proportional hazards analysis.

Nutrient intake was adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method (Willett W, Stampfer MJ. Total energy intake: implications for epidemiologic analyses. Am J Epidemiol 1986; 124:17-27).

AD Covariates:
APOE4APOE e4 genotype
CHDcoronary heart disease
DMdiabetes mellitus
SMsmoking status
SHstroke history
VTBvitamin B12
VTB6vitamin B6