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Origins of Variance in the Old-Old: Octogenerian Twins
On the basis of data in the participants’ medical records, investigators defined participants as diabetic using ICD-10 criteria and American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommendations.
Specific information on the ethnicity breakdown of this cohort was not reported in this paper. Another study which used a cohort made up of subsamples from the Swedish Twin Registry has described the OCTO-TWIN participants as Caucasian (Jansson et al., 2003).
Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein 1975)
National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)
Total dementia definition:
DSM-III-R criteria used to define dementia.
"All participants were examined with a battery of memory and cognitive tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein et al., 1975). Individuals suspected of having dementia were given a diagnostic workup, including an interview with an informant about memory and cognitive problems, review of cognitive test protocols, and medical records. Findings were presented at a consensus diagnosis conference. Diagnoses were assigned following DSM-111-R criteria for dementia (American Psychiatric Association, 1987), NINCDS/ADRDA criteria for AD (McKhann et al., 1984), and the NINDS-AIFEN criteria for VaD (Roman et al., 1993)."
Covariates & Analysis Detail
Cox proportional hazards regression
The primary analysis for this paper included both prevalent and incident cases. The hazard ratio and confidence interval reported here are from a secondary analysis which focused only on incident cases. The total number of AD cases, the % of individuals with diabetes, the age distribution at baseline, the average duration of follow-up were all not reported for the incident AD only analysis.
congestive heart failure history
mycardial infarction history
transient ischemic attack history