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AlzRisk Paper Detail

Reference: Engelhart, 2004
Cohort: Rotterdam Study
Risk Factor: Inflammatory Biomarkers

Average Follow-up Time Detail
At the baseline examination (1990-1993) blood samples were drawn from 7050 participants (88% of the total cohort). The study population included a sub-cohort of 727 participants plus all persons with dementia as of December 1999 (n with dementia = 188). Follow-up examinations for this study population occurred between 1998-1999.

Exposure Detail
The investigators measured CRP levels with kinetic nephelometry. They used high-sensitivity CRP measurements in accordance with the World Health Organization CRP Reference Standard. The interassay coefficient of variation for CRP was 4.4%. All inflammatory proteins from the study were assessed from plasma samples collected at baseline.

The paper reports the median and interquartile range for CRP level: 1.72 (0.80-3.68) mg/dL, however it is likely that the units are in mg/L.

Ethnicity Detail
Study participants were residents of Ommoord, a suburb of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Screening Method:
CAMDEXCambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly
GMSGeriatric Mental State Schedule (Copeland 1976)
MMSEMini-Mental State Examination (Folstein 1975)

AD Diagnosis:
Brain Imaging
NINCDS ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)
Neurologic examination

Total dementia definition: The 188 incident cases of dementia included 140 with AD, 23 with vascular dementia (VaD), and 25 cases with other dementias. Dementia diagnoses were made in accord with internationally accepted criteria for dementia (DSM-III-R), AD (National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association [NINCDS-ADRDA]), and vascular dementia (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences [NINDS-AIREN]).

Covariates & Analysis Detail
Analysis Type:
Cox proportional hazards regression

AD Covariates:

TD Covariates:

"When analyses were performed after exclusion of the data for users of anti-inflamatory medication, subjects with CRP levels higher than 15mg/L, or users of statins, the results also remained similar."