Get Newsletter
AlzRisk Paper Detail

Reference: Honma, 2012
Cohort: Retirement home residents in Japan
Risk Factor: Inflammatory Biomarkers

Average Follow-up Time Detail
Participants were selected from older adults who were living in either of two retirement homes in Toyama and Fukishima prefectures in Japan from 1995 - 2001.

Participants were evaluated monthly by a neurologist and a geriatrician for the duration of follow-up. Every month, the date of onset was estimated on the basis of cognitive test scores, functional ability, self-reported memory loss, medical record information, and staff observations.

None of the 133 participants were lost to follow-up during the study.

Exposure Detail
In this table we present the results for resting plasma IL-6. The group with a value less than 50 pg/mL is the reference group.

"Productions of IL-1β and IL-6 from peripheral monocytes were assessed by a high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), as described elsewhere (Baqui et al., 2000). Briefly, after plasma was separated by centrifugation, monocytes were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque gradient separation followed by overnight plastic adherence. Cultured monocytes were stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)of either P. gingivalis of F. nucleatum for 2, 8, 24, and 48 h and supernatant fluids were collected. Il-1β and IL-6 levels in supernatant fluids were estimated by ELISA."

Age Detail
The age provided is the mean age at baseline.

Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Screening Method:
MMSEMini-Mental State Examination (Folstein 1975)
Neuropsych Testing

AD Diagnosis:
NINCDS ADRDA National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)

Total dementia definition: DSM-III-R

Screening: "At baseline, each participant provided written informed consent and underwent a uniform structured clinical evaluation, general physical examination, general and specific blood tests, and electrocardiography. The evaluation included a medical history regarding smoking status, HT, and DM; a neurologic examination; and neuropsychological performance testing including the Mini-Mental State Examination (Folstein et al., 1975) at baseline. Clinical examinations were performed blind to screening cognitive scores. A consensus diagnosis process established or ruled out the diagnosis of dementia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Revised Third Edition (American Psychiatric Association, 1987); the presence of probable or possible AD according to the National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke–Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria (McKhann et al., 1984); and stage of dementia according to the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (Hughes et al., 1982). We categorized as AD all those with Clinical Dementia Rating Scale scores of 0.5 or higher also meeting the criteria for probable or possible AD. VA was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnostic and Treatment Centres (Chui et al., 1992)."

Covariates & Analysis Detail
Analysis Type:
Cox proportional hazards regression

"In the Cox proportional hazards models, the time-to-event variable was the time from the baseline assessment to either VD or AD diagnosis; individuals who did not develop either VD or AD were censored at the last date of the 10-year follow-up period or death from other causes."

AD Covariates:
BMIbody mass index
DMdiabetes mellitus
OASOvert Aggression Scale
SMsmoking status

Results are presented for AD and VD. There are no combined TD results.