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Papers of the Week
The HBO Alzheimer's Project
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AlzRisk Paper Detail
Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs
Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project
Average Follow-up Time Detail
Follow-up ranged from 1-5 years.
Information on oral estrogen use (including duration and age at time of use) was obtained by interview at study entry. Questionnaire questions about estrogen use had good test-retest reliability (k=0.65). The authors state that the majority of hormone users took conjugated estrogens (Premarin), but do not provide a percentage.
Exposure is categorized by 1) History of estrogen use (ever v. never), and 2) Duration of use (
year, > 1 year). Results reported in this table are for duration of estrogen use.
31 (20%) of the estrogen users did not recall their duration of use. Their results are reported separately.
Screening and Diagnosis Detail
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual III-Revised
National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke/Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association Criteria (McKhann 1984)
"For diagnosis of dementia, medical records and imaging studies were used, as well as data from the initial and follow-up study examinations. The diagnosis was established by consensus among an independent group of physicians and neuro-psychologists from this information. This group were not aware of information on oestrogen use at any point during the diagnostic process. The diagnosis of dementia
required evidence of cognitive decline on the neuropsychological test battery and impairment in social or occupational function. All data were examined to identify the aetiology of dementia with standard criteria
for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease."
Covariates & Analysis Detail
Cox proportional hazards regression
APOE e4 genotype
Additional adjustment for ethnic group, years of education, and participation group (senior center or housing v. Medicare sample) did not significantly change the results.